Cape Town and Surrounds
Cape Town Facts
- Table Mountain’s flat top was formed about 300 million years ago. The mountain was at sea level during an ice age and ice sheets flattened the layers of sandstone to form the famous landmark.
- Hand axes made by Homo Erectus, dating back 750 000 years, have been found near Cape Town.
- The San and the Khoikhoi are the first recorded peoples of the Cape. The San were hunter-gatherers while the Khoikhoi were mainly herders.
- In later years, the Khoisan generation called the area Hoerikwaggo, meaning “mountain that rises from the sea”.
- Cape Town is situated on an underground river called Camissa, meaning “place of sweet waters”.
- In the 1500s, Portuguese sailors encountered storms as they sailed around the Cape Peninsula and dubbed it “the Bay of Storms”.
- Jan Van Riebeeck and Dutch East India Company settlers landed at the Cape on April 6, 1652. They had been sent to the Cape to establish a supply station for ships travelling to the Dutch East Indies.
- Asian immigration to South Africa started in 1654 when slaves from Malaysia were brought to the Cape, in turn encouraging the spread of the Islamic faith and culture in the Cape. They are known today as Cape Malays – a unique mixture of African and Asian culture. Their cooking is exotic and a ’must try’ during a visit to the Cape.
- Cape Town celebrates Tweede Nuwe Jaar, meaning “Second New Year”, in the form of a parade of singing and dancing ‘Kaapse Klopse’ minstrels. This tradition has its origins in the Cape Malay slaves who celebrated the ringing in of a New Year on the only day they were offered leave from work each year – 2 January. This tradition has carried on for almost two hundred years.
- Cape Town has its own unique mix of indigenous music called Ghoema, closely associated with the Cape Malay culture having its origins linked to the musical culture of the original Malay slaves brought to the Cape by the Dutch in the 1600’s.
- Great Britain took possession of the Cape during the Napoleonic wars (the Dutch were French allies) and stopped the importation of slaves in 1801. Britain gave the Cape back to the Dutch after hostilities ceased in 1802 and later purchased it from the Dutch in 1814. Britain abolished slavery throughout its empire on 1 August 1834.
- Cape Town has the oldest wine industry outside Europe and the Mediterranean, dating back to 2 February 1659 when Jan van Riebeeck produced the first wine recorded in South Africa.
- On 31 May 1836 Darwin’s HMS Beagle arrived at Simon’s Bay, near Cape Town, on its way home to South America. Darwin trailed through the Cape for 18 days while doing research here.
- The original Table Mountain Cableway opened for business on 4 October 1929, transporting millions of visitors, as well as the current Queen of England, Elizabeth ll, to its smooth summit.
- The oldest living tradition in Cape Town is the firing of the Noon Day Gun at Lion Battery on Signal Hill. The Noon Day cannons are also two of the oldest cannons in the world still in daily use.
- Dr. Christiaan Barnard performed the first human heart transplant in the world in 1967 in Cape Town at Groote Schuur Hospital.
- District Six is an inner city residential area made famous by the forced removal of more than 60 000 inhabitants during the 1970s. The District Six Museum was established in 1994.
- Cape Town’s City Hall was built in 1905. On 11 February 1990 Nelson Mandela made his first public speech after his release from Robben Island, on the balcony of the City Hall.
- South Africa hosts some of the largest, by number of entrants, sporting events in the world with three being the largest of their type. The Cape Argus is one and the other two are the world's largest ultra-marathon running event, the Comrades Marathon, and the world's largest open water swim, the Midmar Mile.
- Take the cableway up one of the 7 Wonders of the new world, Table Mountain.
- Spend the day shopping, eating and relaxing at the most visited attraction in Africa, the V&A Waterfront. (V&A stands for Victoria and Albert)
- Visit the UNESCO World Heritage site of Robben Island, where Nelson Mandela spent 27 years in prison.
- Take a walking tour or ride the ‘Red Bus’ and discover the heritage, architecture and hidden gems of the city where the colonisation of Africa began.
- Stroll along the Sea Point Promenade, 11km of ocean shore walkway.
- Ride or if you’ve got the time and energy, hike up Lion’s Head to experience one of the most picturesque routes in the world and enjoy stunning 360 degree views from the summit.
- Feel the African vibe in Greenmarket Square, with street cafés and arts & craft markets in a cobbled-stone square.
- Party at one of the vibrant clubs or restaurants in Long Street at night or browse its many quirky shops during the day.
- At Camps Bay you can have a lazy day on the Blue Flag graded beach or enjoy a cocktail on the famous sundowner strip.
- Take your picture outside one of the colourful houses in Bo-Kaap, the home of the historic Cape Malay community.
- Chapman’s Peak Drive: This is truly one of the most scenic seaside roads in the world. Absolutely stunning views of the coastline.
- View or even swim with African Penguins who are permanent residents on Boulders Beach
- See spectacular natural scenery and catch a ride on the funicular at the most south westerly tip of Africa, Cape Point.
- Ride on horseback across the uninterrupted 8km stretch of white sand at Noordhoek Beach.
- Enjoy traditional fish and chips from a box at Hout Bay Harbour or visit the Bay Harbour Market over the weekend.
- Simon’s Town is the historic naval centre of South Africa. If you visit, take a pic with the statue of ‘Just Nuisance’ the only dog ever to be officially enlisted in the Royal Navy, who served during WWII. (for further information see further down on the page)
- The Cape is dotted with bay after picturesque bay. Browse the quaint, arty shops or drink and dine at one of the many sea view restaurants or coffee shops in Kalk Bay.
- In Muizenberg bay you can stroll along the beach and feel the cool Benguela current as it collides with the African continent before it heads north along Africa’s west coast. Take a picture of the brightly coloured wash houses on the beach or for the more adventurous, try surfing
- Have an incredible personal encounter with a Seal on a guided snorkelling trip or go cage diving with Great White Sharks. Bookings can be made at most seaside towns and bays.
- The Peninsula is ideal for road bike cycling and every March it hosts The Cape Town Cycle Tour called The Argus, with as many
- In Kirstenbosch you can stroll through the National Botanical Gardens and pay a visit to the new ‘Boomslang’ canopy walkway.
- With eleven wineries set amongst a lush green hills, Constantia valley is best known for their great quality wines.
- At Groot Constantia Museum you can soak up the history of the oldest wine farm in the county. Visit the tasting room, homestead and orientation centre.
- Visit a Kramat, the sacred burial place of a Holy man of the Muslim faith, in this case Shaykh Abdurahman Matebe Shah who died in 1667 located at the end of Klein Constantia Road.
- In Maynardville Park you can go for a walk, picnic or enjoy an open air theatre production or ballet performance in the park.
- Go for a creative morning out at the Montebello Design Centre. Visit the artists’ studios, shop their beautiful handmade goods and eat at the outdoor restaurant.
- Go on an informative tour of the Newlands brewery built in the 1800’s and taste the variety of beer on tap.
- Home of the Newlands Rugby & Cricket Stadiums - Attend a sporting event at the stadium or tour the beautiful grounds and rugby museum.
- For panoramic views of the city visit the Rhodes Memorial and enjoy some scones, tea and a history lesson.
- For an amazing adrenaline rush, try Zipline where you can glide between the trees on a 2.3km cable situated in the forests at Constantia Nek.
- Canal Walk - Shop at this massive centre offering over 400 stores as well as family-friendly restaurants and movie cinemas.
- Drive the Durbanville wine route and sip on the renowned Sauvignon Blanc cultivar at one of the beautiful wine farms in the area.
- Visit Intaka Island and spot some beautiful birds in this award-winning 16ha wetland boasting 120 different species.
- Get the fun going at the city’s biggest theme park in the city, Ratanga Junction, home of the thrilling Cobra ride.
- For something quite different try Cool Runnings Toboggan Park and go down a fun 1.2km tobogganing track - no snow though, just a toboggan on a steel track. Exhilarating!
- Play a round of golf at one of the world class courses like Atlantic Beach and Durbanville.
- Stroll through the Rose Garden with an impressive 500 varietals and 4500 rose bushes or enjoy refreshments in the tea room.
- Visit the Cape’s biggest casino, Grand West Casino with 2500 slot machines, an ice-rink, tenpin bowling and cinemas.
- Go to Tygerberg Nature Reserve for a walk or mountain bike cycle up the hill or enjoy a picnic with panoramic views.
- Enjoy a local live performance accompanied by a great meal at The Barnyard Theatre or Die Boer.
- Location and conditions are ideal for the sport of Kite-surfing. Try your hand at some kitesurfing or watch the experts display their skills.
- Have a barbeque right on the beach, or visit the Battle of Blaauwberg historic site.
- A great place to learn to surf is in the Blaauwberg waters, with many family-friendly surf hot spots around.
- Blouberg Beach and Lagoon Beach are renowned for their iconic view of Table Mountain.
- At Eden on the Bay you can have a drink while watching the sun set over the ocean at one of the many restaurants and take your picture at the yellow New 7 Wonders frame with Table Mountain as your backdrop.
- Koeberg Nature Reserve offers excellent opportunity to spot some small wildlife on one of the walking or cycling trails.
- Milnerton Flea Market - Browse the quirky second-hand and hand-made goods for bargain prices at this local market next to the sea.
- At Atlantis Dunes, you can go on an exhilarating 4×4 route or try sandboarding down the magnificent dessert-like dunes.
- Visit the old historic quarry on the Hillcrest Wine and Olive Estate, offering restaurants, a kid zone and an open air cinema.
- Blend your own personal aroma in the form of perfume and body lotion at the Perfume Prive workshop.
Cape Malay CultureThe most notable effect the Cape Malay culture has had on the South African lifestyle is in the kitchen. Cape Malay samosas are a Cape Malay traditional dish with a South Asian influence. Adaptations of traditional foods such as bredie, bobotie, sosaties and koeksisters are staples in many South African homes.
The founders of this community were the first to bring Islam to South Africa. The Muslim community in Cape Town remains large and vibrant. The Indian influence in the Cape Malay culture is a result of generations of widespread intermarriage and union between the two communities.
People in the Cape Malay community generally speak Afrikaans but also English, or local dialects of the two. They no longer speak the Malay languages and other languages which their ancestors used, although various Malay words and phrases are still employed in daily usage.
This cultural group developed a characteristic 'Cape Malay' music. An interesting secular folk song type, of Dutch origin, is termed the nederlandslied. The language and musical style of this genre reflects the history of South African slavery; it is often described and perceived as 'sad' and 'emotional' in content and context. The nederlandslied shows the influence of the Arabesque (ornamented) style of singing. This style is unique in South Africa, Africa and probably in the world.
Cape Malay music has been of great interest to academics, historians, musicologists, writers and even politicians. The well-known annual Cape Town Minstrel or Carnival street festival is a deep-rooted Cape Malay cultural event; it incorporates the Cape Malay comic song or moppie (often also referred to as ghoema songs). The barrel-shaped drum, called the 'ghoema', is also closely associated with Cape Malay music.
Cape Town's Rich History
The arrival of EuropeansThe first Europeans to discover the Cape were the Portuguese, with Bartholomeu Dias arriving in 1488 after journeying south along the west coast of Africa. The next recorded European sighting of the Cape was by Vasco da Gama in 1497 while he was searching for a route that would lead directly from Europe to Asia.
Table Mountain was given its name in 1503 by António de Saldanha, a Portuguese admiral and explorer. He called it Taboa da caba ("table of the cape"). The name given to the mountain by the Khoi inhabitants was Hoeri 'kwaggo ("sea mountain")
1652: The arrival of the DutchThe area fell out of regular contact with Europeans until 1652, when Jan van Riebeeck and other employees of the Dutch East India Company (Dutch: Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, or simply VOC) were sent to the Cape to establish a halfway station to provide fresh water, vegetables, and meat for passing ships travelling to and from Asia. Van Riebeeck's party of three vessels landed at the cape on 6 April 1652. The group quickly erected shelters and laid out vegetable gardens and orchards. Water from the Fresh River, which descended from Table Mountain, was channeled into canals to provide irrigation. The settlers bartered with the native Khoisan for their sheep and cattle. Forests in Hout Bay and the southern and eastern flanks of Table Mountain provided timber for ships and houses. At this point, the VOC had a monopoly on trade and prohibited any private trade. The Dutch gave their own names to the native inhabitants that they encountered, calling the pastoralists "Hottentots," those that lived on the coast and subsisted on shellfishing "Strandlopers," and those who were hunter-gatherers were named "Bushmen."
The first wave of Asian immigration to South Africa started in 1654. These first immigrants were banished to the Cape by the Dutch Batavian High Court. These Asians helped to form the foundation of the Cape Coloured and Cape Malay populations, as well as bringing Islam to the Cape. The first large territorial expansion occurred in 1657, when farms were granted by the VOC to a few servants in an attempt to increase food production. These farms were situated along the Liesbeeck River and the VOC still retained financial control of them. The first slaves were brought to the Cape from Java and Madagascar in the following year to work on the farms. The first of a long series of border conflicts between the inhabitants in the European-controlled area and native inhabitants began in 1658 when settlers clashed with the Khoi, who realised that they were losing territory.
Work on the Castle of Good Hope, the first permanent European fortification in the area, began in 1666. The new castle replaced the previous wooden fort that Van Riebeeck and his men built. Finally completed in 1679, the castle is the oldest building in South Africa.
Simon van der Stel, after whom the town of Stellenbosch is named, arrived in 1679 to replace Van Riebeeck as governor. Van der Stel founded the Cape wine industry by bringing grape vines with him on his ship, an industry which would quickly grow to be important for the region. He also promoted territorial expansion in the Colony.
The first non-Dutch immigrants to the Cape, the Huguenots, arrived in 1688. The Huguenots had fled from anti-Protestant persecution in Catholic France to the Netherlands, where the VOC offered them free passage to the Cape as well as farmland. The Huguenots brought important experience in wineproduction to the Cape, greatly bolstering the industry, as well as providing strong cultural roots.
By 1754, the population of the settlement on the Cape had reached 5,510 Europeans and 6,729 slaves. But by 1780, France and Great Britain went to war against each other. The Netherlands entered the war on the French side, and thus a small garrison of French troops was sent to the Cape to protect it against the British. These troops, however, left by 1784. In 1795, the Netherlands was invaded by France and the VOC was in complete financial ruin. The Prince of Orange fled to England for protection, which allowed for the establishment of the Dutch Batavian Republic. Due to the long time it took to send and receive news from Europe, the Cape Commissioner of the time knew only that the French had been taking territory in the Netherlands and that the Dutch could change sides in the war at any moment. British forces arrived at the Cape bearing a letter from the Prince of Orange asking the Commissioner to allow the British troops to protect the Cape from France until the war. The British informed the Commissioner that the Prince had fled to England. The reaction in the Cape Council was mixed, and eventually the British successfully invaded the Cape in the Battle of Muizenberg. The British immediately announced the beginning of free trade.
Under the terms of a peace agreement between Britain and France, the Cape was returned to the Dutch in 1802. Three years later, however, the war resumed and the British returned their garrison to the Cape after defeating Dutch forces at the Battle of Blaauwberg (1806). This period saw major developments for the city, and can be said to be the start of Cape Town as a city in its own right. Taps and iron pipes were installed along major streets in the city. The native inhabitants were forced to declare a fixed residence and were not permitted to move between regions without written permission. The war between France and England ended in 1814 with a British victory. The British drew up a complex treaty whereby pieces of real estate were exchanged for money by various countries. The Cape was permanently taken from the Dutch by the British in return for a large sum of money. In this period, the British saw the control of the Cape as key to their ability to maintain their command in India. The Dutch government was too impoverished and depleted to argue, and agreed with the condition that they be allowed to continue to use the Cape for repairs and refreshment.
The vagrancy and pass laws of 1809 were repealed in 1829. Thus, the Hottentots, in theory, were equal with the Europeans. As in the rest of the British Empire, slaves – estimated to be around 39,000 in number – were emancipated in 1834. This led to the establishment of the Bo-Kaap by a Muslim community after being freed. The Cape Town Legislative Council was also established in the same year. One of the most momentous events in South African history, the Great Trek (Afrikaans: die Groot Trek), began in 1836. About 10,000 Dutch families, for various reasons, left for the north in search of new land, thereby opening up the interior of the country. Further political development occurred in 1840 when the Cape Town Municipality was formed. At its inception, the population stood at 20,016, of which 10,560 were white.
Ensuing political developments now saw gradual moves towards greater independence from Britain and towards a degree of political inclusiveness. In 1854, the Cape Colony elected its first parliament, on the basis of the multiracial Cape Qualified Franchise, whereby suffrage qualifications applied universally, regardless of race. After a long political struggle, this was followed by responsible government in 1872, when the Cape won the right to elect its own locally-accountable executive and Prime Minister. A period of strong economic growth and social development ensued, with a rapid expansion of the Cape Government Railways and other infrastructure, connecting Cape Town to the Cape's vast interior.
The discovery and subsequent exploitation of diamonds and gold in the former Transvaal region in the central highveld in the 1870s and 1880s led to rapid change in Cape Town, as well as in Cape Colony as a whole. In particular, the rise to power of the ambitious colonialist Cecil Rhodes, fueled by the new diamond industry, led to great instability. On becoming the Cape's new Prime Minister, he restricted the multiracial Cape franchise, and instigated a rapid expansion of British influence into the hinterland. A rise in inter-ethnic tensions ensued, followed by the Anglo-Boer War.
As the city of Johannesburg grew from the gold fields, Cape Town lost its position as the single dominant city in the region, but, as the primary port, it nonetheless benefitted from the increased trade to the region. The mineral wealth generated in this period laid the foundation for an industrialised society. This period marked the first incident of segregation in the city. Following an outbreak of bubonic plague which was blamed on the native Africans, the natives were moved to two locations outside of the city, one of which was near the docks and the other at Ndabeni, about six km east of the city.
Just Nuisance – Simon’s TownJust Nuisance was the only dog ever to be officially enlisted in the Royal Navy. He was a Great Dane who between 1939 and 1944 served at HMS Afrikander, a Royal Navy shore establishment in Simon's Town, South Africa. He died in 1944 at the age of seven years and was buried with full military honours.
Just Nuisance was entitled to the same benefits as any other Able Seaman, which included a cap. He sports a cap from HMAS Canberra, in one of many promotional photos taken during World War II.
Early lifeAlthough the exact date of Just Nuisance's birth is not known, it is usually stated that he was born on 1 April 1937 in Rondebosch, a suburb of Cape Town. He was sold to Benjamin Chaney, who later moved to Simon's Town to run the United Services Institute (USI). Just Nuisance quickly became popular with the patrons of the institute and in particular the ratings, who would feed him snacks and take him for walks. He began to follow them back to the naval base and dockyards, where he would lie on the decks of ships that were moored at the wharf. His preferred resting place was the top of the gangplank. Since he was a large dog even for a Great Dane (he was almost 2 metres (6.6 ft) tall when standing on his hind legs), he presented a sizeable obstacle for those trying to board or disembark and he became affectionately known as Nuisance.
Train TravelNuisance was allowed to roam freely and, following the sailors, he began to take day trips by train as far afield as Cape Town, 22 miles (35 km) away. Despite the seamen's attempts to conceal him, the conductors would put him off the trains as soon as he was discovered. This did not cause the dog any difficulty, as he would wait for the next train, or walk to another station, where he would board the next train that came along. Amused travelers would occasionally offer to pay his fare but officials of the State-owned railway company (South African Railways and Harbours) eventually warned Chaney that Nuisance would have to be put down unless he was prevented from boarding the trains or had his fares paid.
Naval ServiceThe news that Nuisance was in danger of being put down spurred many of the sailors and locals to write to the Navy, pleading for something to be done. Although somebody offered to buy him a season ticket, naval command instead decided to enlist him by the book. As a member of the armed forces, he would be entitled to free rail travel, so the fare-dodging would no longer be a problem. It proved to be an excellent idea. For the next few years he would be a morale booster for the troops serving in World War II.
He was enlisted on 25 August 1939. His surname was entered as "Nuisance" and, rather than leaving the forename blank, he was given the moniker "Just". His trade was listed as "Bonecrusher" and his religious affiliation as "Scrounger", although this was later altered to the more charitable "Canine Divinity League (Anti-Vivisection)". To allow him to receive rations and because of his longstanding unofficial service, he was promoted from Ordinary Seaman to Able Seaman.
He never went to sea but fulfilled a number of roles ashore. He continued to accompany sailors on train journeys and escorted them back to base when the pubs closed. While many of his functions were of his own choosing, he also appeared at many promotional events, including his own 'wedding' to another Great Dane, Adinda. Adinda produced five pups as a result, two of which, named Victor and Wilhelmina, were auctioned off in Cape Town to raise funds for the war effort.
Nuisance's service record was not exemplary. Aside from the offences of travelling on the trains without his free pass, being absent without leave, losing his collar and refusing to leave the pub at closing time, his record shows that he was sentenced to having all bones removed for seven days for sleeping in an improper place — to wit, the bed of one of the Petty Officers. He also fought with the mascots of ships that put in at Simon's Town, resulting in the deaths of at least two of them.
Discharge and DeathNuisance was at some point involved in a car accident. This caused thrombosis, which gradually paralysed him, so on 1 January 1944 he was discharged from the Navy. His condition continued to deteriorate and on 1 April 1944 he was taken to Simon's Town Naval Hospital where, on the advice of the naval veterinary surgeon, he was euthanised. The next day he was taken to Klaver Camp, where his body was draped with a Royal Naval White Ensign and he was buried with full naval honours, including a gun salute and the playing of the Last Post. A simple granite headstone marks his grave, which is on the top of the hill at Klawer, at the former SA Navy Signal School. A statue was erected in Jubilee Square in Simon's Town to commemorate his life. The Simon's Town Museum has an exhibition dedicated to his story and since 2000 there has been an annual parade of Great Danes from which a lookalike is selected.
CAPE TOWN CYCLE TOURCape Town Cycle Tour is the largest cycle race, based on number of entrants, in the world. It is traditionally staged on the second Sunday of March and has attracted well known competitors such as Miguel Indurain, Jan Ulrich and Lance Armstrong. South Africa hosts some of the largest sporting events in the world with three being the largest of their type. Besides the Cape Argus cycle race, the other two are the world's largest ultra-marathon running event, the Comrades Marathon, and the world's largest open water swim, the Midmar Mile. Officially known as the Cape Town Cycle Tour, it is an annual cycle race hosted in Cape Town, South Africa and is usually 109 km (68 mi) long. It is the first event outside Europe to be included in the Union Cycliste Internationale's Golden Bike Series. The Cycle Tour forms the last leg of the Giro del Capo, a multi-stage race for professional and leading registered riders.
Cape Town Cycle Tour RouteIn recent years the race has usually followed a scenic 109 km (68 mi) circular route from Cape Town down the Cape Peninsula and back. The start is in Hertzog Boulevard in the city centre, at Cape Town's main Civic Centre. It then follows a short section of the N2 called Nelson Mandela Boulevard, then the M3 to Muizenberg, and on to Main Road along the False Bay coast to Simon's Town and Smitswinkel Bay. The route then heads west across the peninsula, past the entrance to the Cape of Good Hope section of the Table Mountain National Park (within which Cape Point is situated). It then heads north along the Atlantic coast through Scarborough, Kommetjie, Noordhoek, Chapmans Peak, Hout Bay over Suikerbossie hill to Camps Bay and ends next to the Cape Town Stadium in Green Point. On occasion, the race has followed slightly different routes for various reasons, between 104 km (65 mi) and 110 km (68 mi) in length
History of the Cycle TourIn 1978, Bill Mylrea and John Stegmann organised the Big Ride-In to draw attention to the need for cycle paths in South Africa. The Ride-In drew hundreds of cyclists, including the Mayor of Cape Town at the time. The ride was first won by Lawrence Whittaker in September 1978. This race was originally planned to run over 140 km (87 mi), including a leg to Cape Point, but was reduced to a 104 km (65 mi) route when authority to enter the then Cape Point Nature Reserve was refused. The organisers convinced an initially reluctant Cape Argus, a local newspaper and sponsor, to grant the event the right to use its name. The event now forms part of one of five cycling events which take place over a period of one week culminating in the Cycle Tour. The other events include:
- Tricycle Tour (youngsters under 6 years of age)
- Junior Cycle Tour (youngsters between 6 and 12 years of age)
- MTB Challenge (Mountain Bike)
- Giro del Capo (5 day pro stage race, the last day of which is the Cycle Tour itself)
- In 2002 due to heat: stopped at 14:45 at Ou Kaapse Weg when temperatures reached 42 °C (108 °F)
- In 2009 due to strong winds: stopped at 16:30 at Chapman's Peak due to gusts up to 100 km/h (62 mph) that blew cyclists off their cycles. Initially the cut off time was extended from 7 to 8 hours due to the strong wind. Despite the late closure many cyclists were affected, because starting for some groups was delayed by as much as 2 hours due to extreme winds at the starting line-up.